Favorite Resources: Fiction and Non-Fiction Texts

reading

School based SLPs often look to align their intervention goals with academic content standards to increase student success in the classroom. Many of these goals align with English Language Arts standards. Goals for vocabulary, comprehension, and articulation can be targeted easily using fiction and non-fiction texts. Using reading passages is a perfect way to support reading skills and curriculum. It’s also an easy way to incorporate current events or seasonal information as well. I wanted to share four different resources I used for my caseload this year.

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1. Newsela.com
Newsela is a site that takes regular news articles and changes the lexile level for a variety of readers. You can select the article, then pull it up on your screen. On the right side of the screen you can select a variety of lexile levels from 3rd grade up to the regular adult version.This is perfect for mixed groups.
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I love to use it for middle schoolers reading at lower lexile levels.
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We also use these in my articulation groups. This 7th grade student went through and highlighted each /r/ word.
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As he reads the page, I marked each sound with a +/-. Then we go back and work on the words he missed. This resource is free.
2. ReadWorks.org
ReadWorks is another fantastic free resource. I love their units for seasonal reading. Sign up for a free membership. You can search using the calendar at the bottom of the home page. There are resources for Kindergarten and up.
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They even have whole units for free for common books you already have on the shelf! Take time to search through and find units that are made to teach specific skills.
3. ReadingA-Z.com 
Many  districts pay for teachers and SLPs to have access to ReadingA-Z.com. I use it a lot and would recommend it to any SLP working with school aged students. I also have access to VocabularyA-Z. Let me show you some favorite resources within it.
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Leveled books used to be the meat of ReadingAZ. Lately they have added a whole lot more, but these are still my Go-To!
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Once you open a leveled book, you have many options. Print the book, share on a Smartboard, or print additional worksheets.
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I love the vocabulary connections most of all.  Since we have a subscription to VocabularyA-Z there are sets of  vocabulary lessons for EVERY BOOK!
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This is such a huge time saver for me. It takes the planning out of vocabulary practice!
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There are special lessons for ELL/ESL. These are great for language learners and for daily living skills units.  There are printable books that focus on feelings, vocabulary (vegetables, money, etc.), and places (neighborhood, school).
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The website also includes decodable books.  They are divided by sounds and even blends. These are  great for articulation practice.
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One section of ReadingAZ features comic books. Lots of my reluctant readers /language delayed  kids love comic books.
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The last feature I frequently use is the write your own story books. Most of the lower leveled books are available in the ‘write your own’ format. You can either print the regular book or print the wordless book. This is an easy way to progress monitor a variety of grammar and narrative skills. Of course it’s great for direct instruction, too! If you’re working on retell you can read the story with the words first and then use the ‘write your own’ version to support retell.
ReadingAZ is a paid subscription. Look into the free trial if you haven’t used it before.
4. N2Y.com
News-2-You is a symbol based weekly newspaper. It’s my ‘go-to’ for daily living skills classes and autism classrooms. I love the predictability and the symbol support. You can also download many levels of  instruction.
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This is the ‘regular version.
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The simplified version has less text.
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This is the ‘higher’ version (but still not the highest offered.)
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Did you know they have a spanish edition?
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I love the pre-made communication boards and the recipes included. I use the app frequently with my students.N2Y is a subscription based program. You would not be disappointed if you purchased it. I promise!
Those four resources are websites I use every week to support my instruction.  SLPs can use them as part of their instruction or as a way to provide homework, align their intervention goals with academic content standards in order to increase student success in the classroom.

Jenna Rayburn, MA, CCC-SLP. is a school based speech-language pathologist from Columbus, Ohio. She writes at her blog, Speech Room News. You can follow her on facebooktwitter, instragram and pinterest.

Building Language and Literacy Skills During the Lazy Days of Summer

Podcast: Episode 31
Summers mean a break from academics for most kids, but that doesn’t mean learning should stop, particularly for elementary school children who are building so much foundational knowledge. In this podcast, certified SLP Lyndsey Zurawski offers tips and advice for parents about how to stimulate children’s language skills during everyday activities over the break—helping them build literacy skills and setting the stage for long-term academic success. Read the transcript.

Why Growing a Healthy Green School is Golden

green school

Remember dioramas from first and second grade? Last fall I was invited to attend the opening of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s “Lessons for a Green and Healthy School” exhibit, a giant, life-sized, walk through diorama on how to create a green environment in schools. Located at the Public Information Center of US EPA’s Region 3 offices in Philadelphia, what I learned there about sustaining a healthy school for students, teachers, and community was exciting…and I heard it from the students themselves. [How to Build A Healthy School]

The Green Ribbon Schools Program is a joint endeavor between the U.S. EPA and U.S. Department of Education. The program honors schools and districts across the nation that are exemplary in reducing environmental impact and costs; improves the health and wellness of students and staff; and provides effective environmental and sustainability education, which incorporates STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics), civic skills and green career pathways.

A healthy green school is toxic free, uses sustainable resources, creates green healthy spaces for students and faculty, and engages students through a “teach-learn-engage” model. Examples of greening techniques include the using building materials for improved acoustics; installing utility meters inside the classroom as a concrete aid for teaching abstract concepts in math; and incorporating storm water drainage systems within a school’s landscape design to teach and practice water conservation. What are some environmental concerns to address when you are growing a healthy school?

  • Asthma and asthma triggers (indoor air quality)
  • Asbestos and lead (especially in older buildings)
  • Carbon monoxide (from old furnaces, auto exhaust)
  • Water fountains
  • Chemicals in the science lab (think mercury)
  • Art and educational supplies
  • Managing extreme heat
  • Upkeep of athletic grounds
  • Mold, lighting fixtures
  • Waste and recycling

Now more than ever, we must educate new generations of citizens with the skills to solve the global environmental problems we face. How can we have a green future or a green economy without green schools?

Benefits of green schools

1. Cost/Energy Savings:Daylighting” or daylit schools achieve energy cost reductions from 22 percent to 64 percent over typical schools. For example in North Carolina, a 125,000 square foot middle school that incorporates a well-integrated daylighting scheme is likely to save $40,000 per year compared to other schools not using daylighting. Studies on daylighting conclude that even excluding all of the productivity and health benefits, this makes sense from a financial investment standpoint. Daylighting also has a positive impact on student performance. One study of 2000 school buildings demonstrated a 20 percent faster learning rate in math and 25 percent faster learning rate in reading for students who attended school with increased daylight in the classroom.

2. Effects on Students: Students who attended the diorama presentation in Philadelphia expressed a number of ways how their green school changed personal behavior and attitudes. One young lady spoke of how a green classroom helped her focus and stay awake. Another student said being in a green school made them happier. There was more interest in keeping their school environment cleaner by monitoring trash disposal, saving water by not allowing faucets to run unnecessarily, picking up street trash outside the school, sorting paper for recycling, and turning off lights when room were no longer in use. Some students went so far as to carry out their green behaviors at home. Small changes in behavior and attitude such as these are the foundation for a future citizenry who will be better stewards of the environment.

3. Faculty Retention: Who wouldn’t want to be a speech-language pathologist in a green school? Besides, there would be so many opportunities for a therapist to embed environmental concepts in to their session activities. Think how a quieter environment would foster increased student attention. How about having the choice of conducting a small group session in the pest-free landscape of the school yard? Research supports improved quality of a school environment as an important predictor of the decision of staff to leave their current position, even after controlling for other contributing factors.

How to make your school green

  • Have a vision for your school environment. You can start small at the classroom level or go district wide. Focus on one area or many (healthier cafeteria choices, integrated pest management, purchase ordering options, safer chemistry lab) Maybe you already know what environmental hazards affect your school – if you do then start there.
  • Get a committee going. It helps to have friends. Is there someone you can partner with? School nurse, building facilities manager, classroom teacher, PTA, students?
  • Conduct a school environmental survey. This doesn’t have to be complicated, you can poll your colleagues, or discuss at the next department meeting, or over lunch. If you like, check out EPA’s “Healthy SEAT – Healthy School Environments Assessment Tool” for ideas.
  • Have a plan. Select a time frame, short term first and use it as a pilot to evaluate whether a green school is possible. Pick something small to work on.
  • Monitor and evaluation your progress. It’s always a good idea to collect data but it doesn’t have to be too sophisticated. Use “before and after “ photos or video student testimonials.
  • Embed the green environment into the student curriculum and activities. Create speech lesson plans with green materials or photos of your green school project. Growing Up Wild is an excellent curriculum for early childhood educators.

Anastasia Antoniadis is with the Tuscarora (PA) Intermediate Unit and works as a state consultant for Early Intervention Technical Assistance through the Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network. She earned a Master of Arts degree in speech pathology from City College of the City University of New York and a Master’s degree in public health from Temple University. She was a practicing pediatric SLP for 14 years before becoming an early childhood consultant for Pennsylvania’s early intervention system. Her public health studies have been in the area of environmental health and data mapping using geographic information system technology.  You can follow her on Twitter @SLPS4HlthySchools. 

 

 

 

Mission Impossible: Collaboration (Are We Succeeding?)

collaboration

 

Ellie’s parents were optimistic about her transition from her private preschool for children with hearing loss to her neighborhood public school kindergarten.  After all, Ellie’s speech and language skills had improved greatly since enrolling her in the preschool. Ellie’s previous school had an audiologist who came to the school daily to check all the children’s equipment and interacted easily with Ellie’s speech-language pathologist and teachers of the deaf.  However, only a few weeks into kindergarten, Ellie’s mother was already concerned that the new speech-language pathologist was not checking Ellie’s cochlear implant on a regular basis.  The audiologist for the school district was responsible for 250 children at multiple schools throughout the county so how attentive could she be to Ellie’s needs?  Would Ellie tell her teacher if her implant wasn’t working, or if her battery was dead?  Would Ellie’s implant audiologist at the hospital share her test results with the speech-language pathologist, as Ellie’s mother had requested?

Scenarios such as this one are familiar to those of us who work with children with hearing loss.  Children are being identified and treated for hearing loss earlier than ever thanks to universal newborn hearing screenings and enhanced technologies.  The same children who 30 years ago would have been in specialized educational settings are now entering mainstream classrooms across the nation.  Clearly this was our goal, and we are excited to see the progress that has been made on this front.  However, when a child is in a general education classroom, sees her audiologist twice a year for programming at a hospital 50 miles from home, gets private speech therapy one hour a week at ABC Therapy, and sees the school SLP for 30 minutes twice a week, coordination of care can fall through the cracks.  It was this disconnect between the professions of speech-language pathology and audiology that first drove me to pursue both my Au.D. and SLP degrees and become dually certified.  I wanted to be able to treat the whole patient, from diagnosing the hearing loss to helping them achieve listening and spoken language outcomes.

In 2011-2012, I conducted a survey under the direction of Anne Marie Tharpe, Ph.D. examining this issue.  We wanted to know whether or not audiologists and speech-language pathologists believed they were collaborating effectively, and we wanted to see if the parents of children with significant (moderate-profound) hearing loss agreed.  We surveyed 189 individuals, essentially evenly divided between parents, audiologists, and speech-language pathologists.  Almost all respondents to the survey felt that collaboration between the two professions was important.  “Collaboration” meant everything from sharing test results to attending IEP meetings.  The take-home message from the survey results was that about 1/3 of the parents and audiologists, and 1/4 of SLPs surveyed did not agree that professionals were working collaboratively.  So one out of every three parents with whom you interact may feel there is something more we could be doing to work better as a team.

The most often-cited barriers by clinicians to collaboration included time constraints and large caseloads.  One of the most rewarding findings in the survey was that 100 percent of parents of children ages birth-3 years felt that professionals were working collaboratively.  This tells us that we have indeed done a good job in improving our service delivery to this population with a focus on family-centered care.  However, we are still challenged by how to provide collaborative hearing care to children and their families when they reach school.

So what are your thoughts? Do you feel you work well as part of the parent-audiologist-speech-language pathologist team?  What are your biggest frustrations? How might we improve our collaborations with other professionals – perhaps by embracing new technology that allows us to communicate and collaborate in a more timely manner? As we think about Better Speech and Hearing Month this May, let’s focus on working toward better collaboration with one another so that children such as Ellie have the best chance to succeed.

 

Adrian Taylor, Au.D., M.S., CCC-A/SLP is an audiologist and speech-language pathologist at the Vanderbilt Bill Wilkerson Center in Nashville, Tenn.  She works primarily in the area of cochlear implants and aural (re)habilitation in both the pediatric and adult populations. Adrian may be contacted at Adrian.l.taylor@Vanderbilt.edu.  

How to Begin or Reignite Your Career in Schools

school

One of the best things about being a speech-language pathologist is the variety of work settings to choose from. Holding the CCC affords SLPs the flexibility to carve out a niche many settings such as schools, hospitals, skilled nursing facilities; private practice, academia and corporate.  You can reinvent yourself just by changing where you work.

As an SLP who has worked in many settings.  I can attest to the value of change and honing new skills. However, change is always easier when you’re equipped with the right information.

If you’re making a change to schools, here are ten things to know to help you get started:

  1. The federal IDEA law and regulations governs special education and related services to all children with disabilities. This includes children with speech and communication disorders. It is important to understand the law and regulations in order to follow the special education process in schools.
  2. IDEA requires that all students who receive special education have an Individual Education Program or IEP. The IEP is the blueprint for the services that each child receives and should include a statement of the child’s present level of performance, measurable annual goals, including academic and functional goals that will help the child to benefit from the educational curriculum.
  3. It’s important to know that there are qualifications for eligibility for speech language services in schools. Check with your local district or state for guidelines outlining eligibility criteria for speech-language services.
  4. Service delivery in schools is typically conducted through individual or small group sessions, and/or  in collaboration with teachers and other education professionals. Tracking goals and collecting data for multiple students in one session is accomplished with preplanning and organization. It is important to develop a method of tracking data for each student goal in order to report progress throughout the year.
  5. The average student Caseload  across the country is 47 according the 2012 Schools Survey. That number will fluctuate throughout the school year. Scheduling and service delivery are key to managing your caseload.
  6. Response to Intervention (RTI) is a process in which struggling students are provided with alternative interventions in areas of need to determine if their performance is due learning difficulties or faulty instruction. Some schools fully embrace the RTI model while others do not. IDEA allows for RTI but does not require it.  SLPs often play a role in the RTI process in their schools.
  7. The Common Core State Standards have been adopted by 45 states thus far and is an initiative to prepare students for college programs or to enter the workforce.  The standards include the areas of reading, writing, speaking and listening, language and mathematics. SLPs should be familiar with the standards in their state to develop IEP goals that complement and integrate the Common Core curriculum for the students they serve.
  8. Speech-language pathology assistants (SLPAs) typically work in the school setting under the supervision of an SLP. The scope of practice for an SLPA is narrower than that of an SLP and is designed to support, not supplant the work of the SLP. ASHA recommends that SLPs supervise no more than 2 SLPAs at a time.
  9. SLPs in schools may be subject to state teacher requirements. ASHA’s state by state webpage outlines teaching requirements from each state across the country. Learn in advance what you’ll need to work in the public schools in your state.
  10. Salaries in schools vary widely across the country. ASHA’s 2012 School Survey provides salary data for public school SLPs in every state. Opportunities to earn additional income may be available by working in after school and summer school programs. Salary supplements may be available to SLPs who hold CCC credential.  Schools also offer excellent retirement plans, health benefits and favorable schedules.  Read more about the rewards of working in schools.

Of course, there’s much more to school based practice than just these ten points, but it’s a start.  ASHA is committed to serving school based SLPs by offering clinical and professional resources as well as professional development opportunities. One of the most popular professional development events is ASHA’s annual  Schools Conference. The Conference features the best speakers in the field on a variety of topics.  In fact, early bird registration is open now!
These resources and opportunities for learning will help to make your transition to schools a smooth one.  If you’d like to connect with us about school based practice, please contact us: schools@asha.org. We’d love to hear from you.

 

Lisa Rai Mabry-Price M.S. CCC-SLP, is the associate director of School Services for ASHA. She can be reached at lmabry-price@asha.org.

Collaboration Corner: In Defense of the Whole Child

wholechild

I treat children with autism. I’ve been doing it for a while now. As the numbers of children with autism peak a staggering 1:88 (Center for Disease Control, 2014), the demand for trained staff has gone through the roof. Many districts have specialized paraprofessionals whose primary job is to teach and support children with autism. In the Boston area, graduate and certificate programs related to ABA are cropping up everywhere, churning out new and enthusiastic graduates by the boatload.

Before I go on, there are three things you should know about me: 1) I have never been a diehard, one-shoe-fits-all clinician, 2) I embrace whole-heartedly the principals of ABA. It’s as an evidenced-based approach, and it works wonders for all sorts of kids, not just ones with autism, and, 3) If I couldn’t be silly with my students, I would just close up shop.

As an SLP, I know there are mountains of other kinds of research, and that child language and cognitive development that are important too. In this age of ABA, I find myself wanting to shout from the rooftops, “Wait! Stop! There’s more to this kid than just autism!”

Our role as SLPs and educators

Working with so many professionals “trained in autism” made me realize that, as SLPs, we bring to the table our knowledge of childhood language development, learning, motivation and context. Never before has this been more evident to me. We also bring the friendly reminder the importance of a playful approach and rapport building.

I’ve found myself shifting discussions to the whole child, and what we know about children and learning.

Here are some pointers I frequently share with staff:

  1. Appeal to the inner child first (yours and theirs). The individual comes before the label.
  2. Not every behavior can be attributed to one definitive cause. Environments, emotional state/regulation, personality, medical/biological components, all should be up for consideration.
  3. Assessment and intervention is a daily process, which is sometimes messy and dynamic (see #2). We won’t always get it right the first time. Or even the second time.
  4. It’s possible (and OK!)  to be structured and silly at the same time. Sometimes silliness increases engagement.
  5. Watch and learn from your kindergarten teachers (see #4). I’ve learned a lot from them about having fun while being structured, thoughtful and flexible.
  6. Use visuals even if the child is verbal or becoming verbal. We can model language through PECS, topic boards and Aided Language Stimulation techniques, within natural play activities.
  7. Strive to meet every child “where they are” in all aspects of learning: attention, behavior, communication and language development.
  8. We can’t make someone ready to learn or communicate; we simply lay the foundation.
  9. Learning can’t happen in a bubble. Context is just about everything. I know what a zoo is, because I’ve been in one, not because I’ve seen a flashcard of one.
  10. And finally, my favorite: Provide random acts of praise and compliments. Make daily deposits into that relationship bank. It’s a worthwhile investment.

 

Kerry Davis Ed.D., CCC-SLP,is a speech-language pathologist in the Boston area, working with children who have significant communication challenges. She conducts trainings and workshops, and serves as a volunteer speech pathologist and consultant for Step by Step Guyana, a school for children with autism in South America. The opinions expressed in this blog are her own, and not those of her employer.

Our Perception of Taste: What’s Sound Got to Do with It?

music

My first love as a speech-language pathologist is pediatric feeding.  I spend lots of time talking to little kids about “carrot crunchies” and “pea-pops” and various silly names for the sounds that different foods make in our mouths as we explore all of the sensory components of food in weekly treatment sessions.

Is it possible that sound is a larger component of our eating experience than many of us realize? What’s sound got to do with eating, or more specifically, with taste? Discovering how the sound of a crunching potato chip affects flavor is more than just curiosity.  Prof. Charles Spence, who leads Oxford’s Crossmodal Research Laboratory, studied how the sound that food makes in our mouths influences our perception of freshness.  It’s an important point for potato chip manufacturers, who strive to create the “crunchiest crisp possible.”

Background sounds in the environment also influence our interpretation of taste.  Spence conducted an experiment where individuals were presented with 4 pieces of identical toffee.  Two pieces were eaten while the subjects listened to the lower pitch of brass instruments.  Two other pieces were eaten while listening to the higher pitch of a piano.  The pieces eaten during the higher pitched piano music were rated “sweet” by the subjects and the pieces eaten during the lower pitched music were rated “bitter.”

Chef Blumenthal, owner of The Fat Duck near London, has taken Spence’s research findings to the next level.  Order the “Sound of the Sea” and you’ll enjoy more than seafood delicacies  presented on “a sand of tapioca and fried panko, then topped with seafood foam.” The dish is accompanied by an iPod nestled in a seashell, “so that diners can listen to the sound of crashing waves as they eat.” Spence reports that diners experience stronger, saltier flavors with the sound of the ocean in the background.  Another London restaurant, the House of Wolf, serves a cake pop along with instructions to dial a phone number and then, before tasting,  press 1 for sweet and 2 for bitter.  Diners who listened to the first prompt heard a high pitched melody and those who pressed “two” heard a low brassy tones.   In an article for the Telegraph, Spence said,  “We have also looked at the crispiness of crisps and biscuits and found that by boosting certain high frequency sounds when volunteers bit into them we could make them taste crunchier, and they became softer if we dampened those frequencies.”  It’s not just diners across the pond who are experiencing the marriage of sound and taste. Major food companies in the United States also have consulted with Spence, who developed a soundtrack to “complement”  the coffee at Starbucks®.  Speaking of coffee, in a recent study, Spence found that humans can detect whether a liquid is hot or cold, just from listening to the sound of it being poured into a glass, porcelain, paper and/or plastic cup.  I’ll consider this the next time I’m waiting for my drink at the local coffee shop.  Perhaps, from now on,  I can just listen to the sound of the pour, grab my drink and avoid the barista announcing “Lite Iced Triple Venti Half-Pump Americano Skinny for High Maintenance Melanie” with that smirk on his face.  But, I digress…

When I consider my little clients in feeding therapy, I wonder how this research might be expanded to detect possible differences in taste perception in children with sensory processing challenges, including kids with autism. Certainly, respecting the differences in a child’s sensory system is an integral part of feeding therapy for most clinicians.  Could it be that this hiccup in auditory, visual, gustatory or other sensory systems communicating efficiently with one another makes eating a variety of foods especially difficult for some children, more than we know at this time?  A recent article in The Journal of Neuroscience reported that kids with “autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have trouble integrating simultaneous information from their eyes and their ears” and discussed how this might affect their language skills. Wendy Chung, MD, PhD at Columbia University Medical Center explained in a recent video for parents how a poorly functioning pathway for simultaneous auditory and visual information (and the secondary problems of processing and responding to sensory signals) causes a child with ASD to be overwhelmed in environments that we find quite comfortable.  Perhaps future research may include Spence’s work and how it might apply to children in feeding therapy. Would certain tones be more soothing while eating?  Would certain music in the school cafeteria help children eat faster or even choose more nutritious foods? The common phrase “a feast for the eyes” may one day turn out to be “a feast for the eyes and ears” as we consider all the possibilities.

Melanie Potock, MA, CCC-SLP, treats children birth to teens who have difficulty eating.  She is the author of Happy Mealtimes with Happy Kids and the producer of the award-winning kids’ CD Dancing in the Kitchen: Songs that Celebrate the Joy of Food!  Melanie’s two-day course on pediatric feeding is  offered for ASHA CEUs and includes both her book and CD for each attendee.  She can be reached at Melanie@mymunchbug.com.

Kid Confidential: Data Collection Using Thematic Therapy

data collection

In December’s Kid Confidential column, I discussed the advantage to using thematic lessons in speech therapy.  Last month, I explained how I write goals when using thematic lessons in therapy and the need for additional sources of data throughout the academic environment.  Today, I’m going to discuss how I record data during thematic therapy sessions as well as how I have gotten other school staff members on board to collect data.  Please note that the below information is based solely on my clinical experience.

Data Collection of SLP in Thematic Therapy Sessions

There are three main ways I can think of to collect data using thematic therapy.  The first of which is to do so throughout the entire therapy session.  The second way is to collect data for certain activities during each session.  The third option is to use periodic data collection among several therapy sessions.

Target goals throughout the entire session

Once you know exactly what skills you are targeting with each student you can determine how you will do this in thematic lessons.  One way to do this is to simply target at least one skill for each student in every thematic therapy activity.  I tend to use this technique most often when working with small groups of students who demonstrate emerging skills.  I will choose language rich thematic activities and incorporate ways to target at least one goal/objective for each student during each activity.  For example, if I have a student who is struggling with pronouns, I will be sure to ask questions during every activity that would require that student to label or expressively use pronouns in order to answer my questions.  This way I am targeting that one specific goal for the entire session for that student. This technique allows me to continue to take data throughout the session for each student and performance in this way tends to demonstrate generalization of skills to other activities as well.

Multiple Short Activities Targeting Different Goals

Now there are times when it is necessary to “drill and kill” a skill for students who have yet to demonstrate emergence of skills and who seem to require multiple trials in one session to facilitate learning.  When this is needed, I will choose to have my students participate in several different short thematic activities where each student is given time to repeatedly target an individual skill within an activity I created just for them centered on the theme and interest of their choosing.  In that manner, all students participate in each activity however data may not necessarily be collected for each student during every activity.  Time for each activity should be flexible depending on your goals, the time it takes to complete the activity and students’ interest.

For example, let’s use the recent holiday season as a possible theme for therapy.  In a small group of 5 students, I may have one that is working on understanding and using prepositions, another student working on increasing overall vocabulary skills, two students working on auditory comprehension skills and recalling details of a story and one student working on articulation skills.  What can I do?  Well I can have a quick craft in which my student working on articulation skills can read directions with different prepositional phrases.  This activity will allow me to collect data on the student who requires assistance in learning prepositions, the students who are working on improving auditory comprehension skills, as well as allowing me to tackle articulation skills of my fourth student.  The next activity could be a thematic book in which my students take turns reading the pages (or if I want to save some time, I may read the book).  Of course this allows me to ask WH questions about the book, possibly ask for synonyms, antonyms or even definitions of words within the book and finally have the students attempt to use a graphic organizer to “map the story” thus requiring them to recall details in sequential order.  Now I have targeted at least one goal for each of my students.  As the book activity would most likely take longer than the craft, this is an instance where my second thematic activity may have a longer duration as compared to my first activity.  By the end of the session, I should have data on at least one goal/objective for each student from at least one activity.

Periodic Data Collection Across Therapy Sessions

The third main option, I believe we have as SLPs is to periodically record data.  This may mean, as an SLP, data is not collected every session but periodically among a number of sessions.  Some colleagues prefer this method of data collection for a number of reasons explained to me previously such as periodic data collection allows for a therapist to focus on the therapy itself without the additional distraction of data collection.  Periodic data can aid in time-management skills particularly for those with extremely high caseloads.  Some therapists feel this is a better indicator of a student’s skills over time without needing to filter out the variability of performance on a daily basis.  Additionally, some therapists believe using the “pre- and post-teach/testing” method of collecting data reflects the academic environment more accurately than daily data.  With all that said, I do want to share a word of caution to those thinking about using periodic data.  The most important thing to remember is to be consistent in taking that data.  Know ahead of time when you are planning on data collection and ensure that you have enough data collection days within each marking period to target goals effectively.  Meaning, if you write your goals for a skill to be performed with a certain amount of accuracy across three data collections days, then you must at least have three data collection days to determine if the skills has been achieved.  Also be diligent.  If a student is absent during those days, be sure to take data regarding that student’s skills the next therapy session.  Periodic data can be helpful in looking at a child’s performance over time if collected consistently.

Data From Other Sources

There will be times when we write goals and target skills in therapy but would like to determine generalization to the academic environment as previously mentioned in last month’s column.  In an instance such as this, data may be collected in a different way and from a different source. Periodic data can be just as effective as daily data collection, as mentioned above, if done with consistency.

With the implementation of RTI, I have found teachers are much more willing and confident in their own ability to take data within the classroom setting, if I take time to train them on how to collect data and express realistic expectations that data will only be recorded at specific times during the day/week or during specific assignments.  This way, I have gotten reliable data collection from teachers regarding a child’s articulation skills for specific sounds during small reading groups, qualitative data on social skills in cooperative learning situations among classroom peers, data on a student’s ability to expressively answer WH’s in the classroom, information on a child’s ability to recall details of a story, and data on the accuracy of a student’s ability to follow classroom directions.

How can all of this work when the goal is to use thematic lessons in therapy?  Well, here is an example for you.  Remember my student working on vocabulary skills?  Well it would behoove me to target academic vocabulary in the school setting as a means to hopefully translate to improved classroom function.  Therefore, I may be given a list of vocabulary words from my students’ teachers and incorporate those words into stories I create using the theme on which we are currently focusing.  I may pre-teach the vocabulary, use context clues to have my students’ define the same vocabulary in my created story, then I may have my students participate in a vocabulary definitions match-up page post story.  This may occur over the span of several sessions.  Once this is completed and I have my data as to how my students performed with this particular list of vocabulary words, I can then compare their performance in my speech room to that of their classroom performance to determine if carryover has occurred.  This way, I am actually using teacher data (e.g. score on the students’ vocabulary sections of their language arts assignments each week) to determine generalization all while still using themes in therapy.

How do I get teachers on board and how can I ensure data collection is occurring?  Here are few tips:

  1. Keep things a simple as possible by providing all materials needed for tracking data.
  2. Let the staff member choose when to take data:  I ask the teacher/staff member what time of day or which classroom activity would be easiest for them to track a student’s performance.  Teachers are more likely to take data during activities or times of day which are easiest for them.
  3. Training goes a long way: Once a specific classroom activity or time of day is identified by the teacher, I will be sure to go to the classroom during that time and train the teacher on how to take data for the specific skill being targeted.  I keep it as simple as possible and very rarely do I have to do this more than once.
  4. Accountability:  I randomly check the data sheets during class time and ask the teacher every few days how my students are doing in the classroom.
  5. Show gratitude:  When teachers and staff members understand how genuinely grateful I am to them for taking time out of their day to help one of our students by recording data, they are much more willing and likely to continue to take data.

What does the data collection form look like for the school staff?  Here’s an example of what I have used in the school setting.

data collection

I usually provide a folder for the data collection sheets for students so the staff member can pull out the data collection sheet, re-read the goal being targeted, and simply take data on the student during the agreed upon time/activity.

For more functional goals that require data collection in real-time during the classroom, such as using appropriate pragmatic skills or using age-appropriate receptive and expressive skills for functional conversational, I will provide teachers with the data collection sheets as well as a page of blank labels.  The teacher can simply take data on the labels in real-time and stick them onto the data collection sheet later.  This way, he/she does not have to stop the lesson to take data.

The possible ways to record data by ourselves as SLPs or collect data from other school professionals is numerous if we are creative and work collaboratively with others.  I’m sure there are a number of school speech-language pathologists using the above techniques as well as a number of others not mentioned today.  As long as we remain flexible, open-minded and always focus on improving functional skills of our students, I believe the ways in which we can do this are infinite.

Maria Del Duca, M.S. CCC-SLP, is a pediatric speech-language pathologist in southern, Arizona.  She owns a private practice, Communication Station: Speech Therapy, PLLC, and has a speech and language blog under the same name.  Maria received her master’s degree from Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania.  She has been practicing as an ASHA certified member since 2003 and is an affiliate of Special Interest Group 16, School-Based Issues.  She has experience in various settings such as private practice, hospital and school environments and has practiced speech pathology in NJ, MD, KS and now AZ.  Maria has a passion for early childhood, autism spectrum disorders, rare syndromes, and childhood Apraxia of speech.  For more information, visit her blog or find her on Facebook

Collaboration Corner: Love Your Librarians!

librarian

One of the best resources in my school is my librarian. I have an amazingly knowledgeable colleague who knows top to bottom, every resource on the shelf or online. Here are some things (online and off-line) that she taught me about my school library:

  • Libraries are an excellent resource for wordless picture books: I can never have enough wordless picture book resources to target narrative language, my kind librarian researched wordless picture books, and printed out a list of titles available throughout the district. The best part is I can check out books as I need to, which saves me from out-of-pocket costs for materials.
  • Libraries are a great place for pre-voc skills: One year I had a minimally verbal student with ASD who was so great when it came to sorting and shelving books in alphabetical order. I’ve had other students help with book check-in or check-out.
  • I have access to so many subscriptions purchased by my schools district, including curriculum-aligned resources, which includes my most recent favorite place, PebbleGo.
  • As we continue to help our students understand fact, fiction and other online places, there are a ton of resources for digital literacy and education, including cyber-bullying.

 

Finally, the library is a welcoming place for all kinds of learners. My generous colleague purchased multi-sensory books and curriculum which help my students connect with literacy in a way that is enjoyable. Whenever a student of mine is having a tough time, we can come to a place for quiet and a little bit of sunshine…there’s a spot right by the window whenever we need to beat a little bit of those winter blues!

Kerry Davis, EdD, CCC-SLP, is a city-wide speech-language pathologist in the Boston area. Her areas of interest include working with children with multiple disabilities, inclusion in education and professional development. The views on this blog are her own and do not represent those of her employer. Dr. Davis can be followed on Twitter at @DrKDavisslp.

 

Just Breathe. Really?

breathing

Easy for you and me to say.  But for 7.1 million U.S. school children it’s not. Childhood asthma rates continue to rise and from 2001 through 2009 those rates were the highest for African American children, almost a 50 percent increase. Asthma accounts for 10.5 million school absences each year. The main trigger of asthma in school children are the same contributors to poor indoor air quality. Yeah, that’s right … open a window.

Air is mostly composed of nitrogen (78 percent) and oxygen (20 percent), air also has about 1 percent of water vapor and tiny amounts of argon and other gases.  For most of us, air quietly passes through our nasal passages into our lungs and out again; taking in the oxygen needed for our blood supply during inhalation and disposing the carbon dioxide by-product during exhalation.  We do this without thought, without effort–unless you are a child with asthma.

Asthma is a chronic lung disease characterized by inflammation of the airways. Recurring symptoms include wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.  Asthma develops in childhood as early as 6 months of age and lasts a lifetime.  About one in 12 Americans are living with asthma and over one third of them are children. In adults women are more likely than men to have asthma and more boys than girls among children. Those with asthma pay a huge price, about $3,000 per year per person to be exact. This figure includes medical care, medications, lost work/school days and deaths.

Various triggers not easily controlled can cause an asthma attack such as changes in weather. However, there are other triggers that can be controlled such as the presence of dust mites, roaches, pets, and mold affecting indoor air quality.  Asthma is particularly more prevalent to those living in poor neighborhoods.  A recent episode of NBC Dateline revealed that the childhood asthma rates in East Harlem run at 19 percent compared to the adjoining Upper East Side neighborhood at 7 percent.  They breathe the same New York City air, so what accounts for the difference?

Water leaks, pest infestation and general contract repairs are the responsibility of a rental unit’s landlord. As economically disadvantaged families tend to reside in these units, they are at the mercy of their landlord. Water damage leads to mold; pest infestation carries allergens; both of these conditions create a significant trigger for asthma in children. Even a child without an asthma history may become asthmatic as a result of repeated and chronic exposure to such poor indoor air quality.

School absences are of particular concern; children who miss more than 18 school days are year are more likely to drop out of school. Children with asthma miss more days of school due to their disease compared to children without asthma.  The number of missed days rises with severity—on average a child with severe and persistent symptoms misses 11.5 days of school in a year.  That’s a lot of missed homework and make up speech sessions. Asthma also affects a child’s sleep quality, which in turn affects a child’s ability to pay attention in class and lowers their quality school work.

 What can you do? 

  • Know which children on your caseload have asthma and know how to deal with an asthma emergency, including the location of the child’s inhaler.
  • Take a look at your therapy treatment room or classroom. Are the floors hard wood or are they carpeted?  If hard wood, hooray! If carpeted, make sure they get vacuumed every day and shampooed at the end of the school week.
  • Got pets? If there are in your classroom, better to send them to another home. Animals carry dander that can trigger asthma. If you have a pet at home, make sure your work wardrobe is free of pet hair.
  • Are you working out of a trailer or portable classroom?  These type of environments generally trap moisture than can turn into nasty mold. Make sure spills and leaks are taken care of quickly.
  • Skip the perfume spritz and after shave before leaving the house for work. Fragrances can trigger an asthma episode.
  •  Refrain from fuzzy or scented materials, pillows or upholstered furniture; these can collect dust mites, which are (surprise!) asthma triggers. If the furniture must stay, vacuum it frequently.
  • No clutter!  Cockroaches and dust mites love clutter … and produce more asthma triggers.
  • If your room has a window that faces high volume vehicular traffic, keep it closed during the vulnerable morning hours and cold temperatures.
  • Stay away from phthalate-based toys  as phthalates are known triggers for asthma.
  • Don’t use pesticide sprays in your room.  Go for integrated pest management strategies instead.
  • Like team work?  Collaborate with your school nurse and district’s administration to develop an asthma management plan at your school if one does not exist.  Another excellent resource is to adopt ideas from the IAQ Tools for Schools Action Kit.  Work with your district’s transportation department to monitor school bus engine exhaust near open windows.

 

Although asthma is prevalent, with some forethought and preventive measures, it can be controlled. Now breathe a sigh of relief!

Anastasia Antoniadis is with the Tuscarora (PA) Intermediate Unit and works as a state consultant for Early Intervention Technical Assistance through the Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network. She earned a Master of Arts degree in speech pathology from City College of the City University of New York and a Master’s degree in public health from Temple University. She was a practicing pediatric SLP for 14 years before becoming an early childhood consultant for Pennsylvania’s early intervention system. Her public health studies have been in the area of environmental health and data mapping using geographic information system technology.  You can follow her on Twitter @SLPS4HlthySchools.