Kid Confidential: Parent Education and Training, Part 1

parents

 

This is part 1 of a three part blog series on the topic of parent education and training.  Look for part 2 and part 3 coming up over the next two months.

Parent education and training is not only an important part of our job as SLPs it is an essential part of our job.  Still, I’ve spoken to many SLPs over social media who still feel like they are lacking this particular skill for a number of reasons. For SLPs in the schools, their caseloads are so high and paperwork demands so daunting, they are left with little time to collaborate with school staff let alone contact parents on a regular basis. For private practitioners, speaking from experience, I think we are so focused on targeting the necessary skills and making gains with our clients, that we forget how important parent education can really be.

We know that parent involvement in general education is certainly beneficial. Children whose parents are involved in their school tend to have better academic performance and fewer behavior problems. It makes sense that parental involvement in speech services also would result in positive effects such as increased home practice of target skills and generalization of learned skills to the home environment.  In fact, there are whole therapy models (i.e. DIR/Floortime, Hanen, etc.) that incorporate parent education and involvement as key factors in their models and have the research to back it up.  The DIR/Floortime model’s portion of parent education and training has been tested and retested among various populations all resulting in positive effects, faster progress and improved generalization of social skills for children with ASD (see list of additional resources below).

So the question we need to ask ourselves is why we aren’t tapping into this wonderful resource and effectively educating and training parents of our clients?  For myself, I can tell you that it took some time to become effective in this manner. Initially it seemed as if I was more of a teacher explaining the rationale for various techniques however I was missing some very important steps. Over time, I have improved upon my ability to educate and train parents and I will share with you my tips for effective parent training:

  1.  Trial techniques:  The first thing I usually do is trial various techniques to determine which techniques the child responds successfully.
  2. Explain rationale:  Once I determine the most effect speech therapy techniques for the child (which we have to accept will change over time, maybe even at each session depending on the child’s ability and behavior), I will explain the rationale behind the techniques to the parent(s) present (either in my therapy room or in their homes when providing therapy).
  3. Model technique(s):  Modeling the technique(s) immediately after explaining the rationale will demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique(s) and make more sense to the parent(s).
  4. Parent’s turn: Allowing the parent(s) to take turns trying to eliciting the communication skill via the use of determined techniques will give them much needed practice in the safety of the therapy session.
  5. Give Feedback: Giving feedback is necessary to training.  It allows parents to feel successful with the skills they currently exhibit and provides additional ideas for the areas in which they are weaker.
  6. Follow up: I think it is so important to follow up with parents session to session to determine how well the techniques are working at home, how comfortable they feel using the techniques and if there are adjustments that need to be made for more effective use.

These are my basic tips for effective parent education and training.  Next time I’ll be talking about how I realistically incorporate parent education and training in my speech therapy sessions.

DIR/Floortime Resources:

  • Casenhiser, D., Shanker, S., & Stieben, J. (2011). Learning Through Interaction in Children with Autism: Preliminary Data from a Social-Communication-Based Intervention. Autism, 17 (2), 220-241.
  • Pajareya, K., & Nopmaneejumruslers, K. (2011). A pilot randomized controlled trial of DIR/Floortime™ parent training intervention for pre-school children with autistic spectrum disorders. Autism15 (5), 563-577. doi: DOI: 10.1177/1362361310386502
  • Solomon, R., J. Necheles, C. Ferch, and D. Bruckman. “Pilot study of a parent training program for young children with autism: The P.L.A.Y. Project Home Consultation program.” Autism, 2007, Vol 11 ( 3) 205-224.

 

Maria Del Duca, M.S. CCC-SLP, is a pediatric speech-language pathologist in southern, Arizona.  She owns a private practice, Communication Station: Speech Therapy, PLLC, and has a speech and language blog under the same name.  Maria received her master’s degree from Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania.  She has been practicing as an ASHA certified member since 2003 and is an affiliate of Special Interest Group 16, School-Based Issues.  She has experience in various settings such as private practice, hospital and school environments and has practiced speech pathology in NJ, MD, KS and now AZ.  Maria has a passion for early childhood, autism spectrum disorders, rare syndromes, and childhood Apraxia of speech.  For more information, visit her blog or find her on Facebook.

Collaboration Corner: 10 Easy Tips for Parents to Support Language

ice cream

As we make our way through the lazy days of summer, schedules change, and things relax. My usual theme is collaboration; parents can be one of our biggest assets in promoting language development. Parents of young children usually want to know what they can do to support their child’s language development in the absence of a structured day. Though I teach children with disabilities, I find I continually revisit the following tips with parents of young children regardless of whether a child is typically developing or needs a little more support. Here they are in no particular order of importance:

  1. Pay attention to body language, when a child is looking toward or reaching for something, they are communicating. Talk about what they are reaching for, “Oh, you want the bubbles!”
  2. Avoid the “say this” tendency. Don’t pressure the child to speak; keeping the experience positive is important. Instead, model what the child might say when he/she is ready.
  3. Take time to sit and read with your child every day. Label everything you see, and encourage them to point to the words and pictures as you talk about them. Books with repetitive lines are great.
  4. Be playful. Sing songs. Use lots of inflection. With familiar songs, leave some of the words out and see if your child will hum or sing the words.
  5. Provide limited choices when you aren’t sure what your child wants. Holding out 2 items, lessens the stress of having too many choices.
  6. Talk with your child about what you are doing, then provide the opportunity for your child to reciprocate. “I’m making some cookies, do you want to help?”
  7. Use first/then language to guide behavior, and then be consistent, “First you need to eat, then you can read.” Use this language even when moving between activities that are preferred or less preferred.
  8. Use pictures: Take pictures of your child’s day and talk about what is coming up next, or make a photo album of fun activities (vacation, going out for ice cream) to talk about.
  9. Remember language is everywhere, even if you child doesn’t understand everything you are saying, he or she needs the exposure. Car rides, walks outside, blowing bubbles are just a few examples. Describe what you see, and ask questions, e.g, “I see a cow. What does a cow say?”
  10. Simplify your props. Sometimes the simplest toys can bring out the best language. Summer is full of such opportunities: A spinning toy, taking a turn kicking a ball, bubbles…all can support your child’s development, simply by talking to them.

Kerry Davis Ed.D., CCC-SLP,is a speech-language pathologist in the Boston area, working with children who have significant communication challenges. She conducts trainings and workshops, and serves as a volunteer speech pathologist and consultant for Step by Step Guyana, a school for children with autism in South America. The opinions expressed in this blog are her own, and not those of her employer.