Primary Prevention in Communication Sciences and Disorders


(photo credit)

Recently I walked through a speech clinic of the near future. You might expect that the examination rooms of this clinic would be stocked with high-powered flexible endoscopes, that would allow one to see with stunning detail oral, laryngeal and pharyngeal structures. You might also look around for powerful tablets and smartphones and high-fidelity digital audio speakers, to provide crystal clear reproductions of a person’s speech output. Today’s communication sciences and disorders (CSD) professional is rapidly reformatting current practice models, with wholesale changes for third party reimbursement occurring as this blog is written. But instead of the high technology fittings of a large scale speech clinic, this speech clinic of the near future has barely changed, but for shelves that contain a number of prevention products. The CSD professional encounters something new but also something old, when introducing prevention activities into a clinical practice. What is prevention to a CSD professional? How futuristic is the push to include prevention as a CSD product line? Can most CSD practices absorb prevention into their business models?

When the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) advocated for prevention of disorders of communication, cognition and swallowing in its 1987 position paper, a slow-rolling but persistently accelerating snowball had been born. Prevention of communication* disorders, on the one hand, seems a radically divergent activity from traditional clinical practice for many speech-language pathologists and audiologists. “You mean I have to not only work with my patients to help them improve, but I also have to help change the world so I have fewer patients?” Exactly. That’s it. On the other hand, prevention is set firmly within the foundation of ASHA practice patterns. Prevention may in the short term help some in your community forestall the need for treatment. It will also in the long term bring more persons in need to the CSD professional’s door.

With primary prevention, the CSD professional attempts to reduce or eliminate conditions that may bring about a communication disorder. You do this through either altering a person’s susceptibility to a condition (if I am exposed, what are the odds I will stay healthy?), or reducing the degree of exposure (should I simply avoid the risk in order to stay healthy?) that makes you susceptible. An example of altering your susceptibility might be improving your speech breathing, to speak over noise you encounter while working at a busy restaurant. The same restaurant worker may, in turn, reduce exposure by changing her or his work schedule to rest the voice.

Primary prevention appears the most alien of the prevention concepts to CSD professionals. After all, most of us stop considering a new product line when there is no reimbursement for it! And it’s not testing or treatment, but – but – it’s selling or teaching stuff, to people who may not have impairments. Can I teach healthy people things that may head off their becoming disabled? Can I sell things, and keep track of sales taxes? Yes, we can. If we are willing to lurch out of our comfort zones as clinicians, there may be tremendous return on investment with the increased community visibility we gain as health promotion professionals. So, how do we do primary prevention in CSD? What is the stuff of it? What are the outcomes we want?

On the primary prevention shelves of this near future clinic, I saw tools that included:

I. Oral-motor/motor speech:

II. Fluency

III. Voice:

  • C.O. Bigelow Elixir White/Green hair and body wash @ $10
  • 1 gallon of distilled water @ $1

IV. Swallowing:

  • 1-qt Ziploc bag, containing a roll of Life Savers and a dispenser of mint waxed dental floss @ $5
  • 1–qt. Ziploc bag, containing a bound supply of 1 doz. sterile tongue depressors @ $5

V. Cognition:

  • Radius model ergonomic garden trowel @ $10
  • GAMES magazine: single issue @ $5

VI. Speech and language:

Readers should note that the selection of brand name products is purely coincidental by the blogger. Products have neither been trialed prior to this writing, nor are there financial or non-financial relationships between the blogger and any product company. Primary prevention products are chosen for stocking in this clinic of the near future for their relatively low price; their ready availability in the community, and their applicability to the needs of the prevention consumer. Price points are strictly ad hoc at this writing; experienced CSD practitioners will adjust the price point and product selection to a level that their customers will bear.

The sales area for primary prevention has its own entrance from street level, thereby controlling the mixing of regular clinic patients (tertiary prevention consumers) with those shopping for their CSD wellness needs. Adjacent to the sales area is a video viewing room, with four computing devices available to consumers to view demonstrations of each primary prevention product. Reading racks mounted at eye level near the viewing stations, contain fliers and magazines from community services that support and announce wellness activities on community calendars.

Let’s make sure the original questions posed are answered. To wit:

  • How do we do primary prevention in CSD?
  • What is the stuff of it?
  • What are the outcomes we want?

Ideally, primary prevention products and activities bring your customer into your marketplace. You help them stay healthy to function in their communities, so that the probability of their entering the healthcare system to identify and treat impairments is lowered. You do primary prevention through teaching, training, referring, marketing, selling, cooperating and participating in a large network of community and supports and services for your customer. Your collaborators in primary prevention may include office managers; health educators; fitness center trainers; bodyworkers; priests, rabbis, imams and healers; drama and singing and cooking teachers; and all those who work in wellness and health promotion. Outcome measurement may be as simple a function as that of measuring the customer’s changes in both health literacy and patient “activation”, as in the Patient Activation Measure of Hibbard and colleagues. The long-term outcome desired is that community healthcare costs are ratcheted downward. The story of primary prevention in CSD is, again, being written as we walk through this near future clinic. What do you see in the clinic of the future? Time to move into the secondary prevention wing now….

*communication, cognition and swallowing.


Carey Payne, MCD, CCC-SLP, is an SLP in Elmhurst, IL.  He knew nothing about speech-language pathology as a profession until he needed it as a client. He was helped at his university’s speech clinic to improve his fluency. He has helped persons of all ages in numerous work settings, for almost thirty years hence.  Carey Payne is an affiliate of ASHA Special Interest Groups 2, Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders and 13, Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia).

Election Year, Taxes and the HES CSD Education Survey

Tax Day

Photo by MoneyBlogNewz

This has been an election year and one could not help but hear the debate over taxes. As I listen, it occurs to me that there are some interesting parallels between taxes and the Higher Education System (HES) CSD Education Survey.

This may seem like an odd comparison but think about the following:

  • Tax time comes around the same time every year, April.  The HES CSD Education Survey opens every September (although slightly delayed this year because of enhancements including pre-population of certain data).
  • The government “collects” money. ASHA and CAPCSD “collect” data on CSD undergraduate through PhD education.
  • The government uses the money for defense, public works, schools, Medicaid, etc. ASHA and CAPCSD use the data to showcase academic programs in EDFIND, an online search engine, as well as publish national aggregate and state aggregate reports on undergraduate through PhD education in CSD. The data, in turn, is used to inform the personnel pipeline, assess potential academic capacity building, gauge student diversity plus much more!
  • Taxes are a source of debate. Differences of opinion abound. The challenge is how much tax to collect and how to use it. Well, so too, ASHA, CAPCSD, faculty and other stakeholders grapple with which questions to ask and strive to ask the lowest number of questions that will provide the greatest value and benefit for the discipline.

Emotions about taxes and the CSD Education Survey are somewhat analogous:

  • First, there is an initial sense of hesitation about the magnitude of the task. Academic programs must gather their data on applications, admissions, enrollment, graduation, first employment and more for all CSD degree programs offered at the institution. Likewise, tax payers must gather up a year’s worth of receipts and forms before sitting down in front of Turbo Tax or sending it all off to the CPA.
  • Once the initial feeling has passed, acceptance prevails.  We recognize taxes are necessary for the common good. So too, faculty recognize the need to inform the pipeline of the professions and advocate on its behalf. Getting the academic program profile in EDFIND is a plus too.
  • Once tax forms are completed and documents and checks signed, a sense of relief and triumph takes over.   For the CSD Education Survey, the final review of the data by the program director or chair and the subsequent click of the submission button also provide a feeling of accomplishment.   Edfind will showcase the program’s academic profile and related information and the academic program’s data will be part of the National Aggregate and State aggregate reports, thus contributing to greater efforts in support of the professions.

Collection mechanisms are complex and require systems that mitigate burden.  Imagine trying to collect money from millions and millions of U.S citizens and residents and organizations?  While ASHA’s and CAPCSD’s data collection endeavors are not of the same magnitude, they are, nonetheless, challenging and require the collaboration of many stakeholders.  The CSD Education Survey goes out to 300 institutions with multiple undergraduate through PhD programs in audiology, speech language pathology and speech language and hearing sciences. This translates into 700 plus degree programs for which data is compiled!  As a result, ASHA and CAPCSD are forever striving to streamline the process.  Academic programs now use a convenient and easy-to-use platform to report data  To that end, ASHA and CAPCSD employ some similar tools used by the IRS:

  • The IRS has a Website with instructions and forms; ASHA has a website with instructions and forms too.
  • Tax payers use nifty electronic platforms that allow for online submission and payment. The HES is housed on a platform that allows for online submission of data.
  • The IRS has an email and phone numbers for folks with questions.  ASHA has an HES Manager who answers questions too; simply email
  • In both cases, finishing early has its rewards.  Early refunds for the taxpayer or the satisfaction of completing the task as part of one’s civic duty.  For academic programs, completing and submitting their HES CSD Education Survey results in immediate update of their CSD program’s profile in EDFIND. The satisfaction of knowing the data is part of the larger aggregate national and state reports should not be overlooked.

Let’s face it, taxes are necessary. We all benefit from roads, schools, healthcare etc… The CSD Education Survey is also necessary and valuable. Without it, there would be no coordinated mechanism for systematically collecting CSD education data and there would be no data reports to inform the personnel pipeline.   For the past two years the CSD Education Survey completion and submission rate has been over 80%.  This leads to robust data for use by all. Additional benefits of having the national aggregate and state  data reports include their use in strategic planning, grant proposals, federal and state advocacy,  first employment trends, and  data based decisions for the professions.

The CSD Education Survey is currently open and will close December 17th.


Silvia Quevedo, Associate Director, Academic Affairs and Research Education at ASHA, can be reached at