Recently, my friend Tonia shared an impressive conversation she had with her 3-year-old daughter.
Naya: Mommy, what are you doing?
Tonia: Collapsing moving boxes.
Naya: Collapsing? Ah yes, like an umbrella at the beach.
Tonia: Yes, exactly. Just like an umbrella at the beach. Do you want to help?
Naya: No, I’m busy. You have to make an appointment.
I thought about the connection Naya made between collapsing moving boxes and an umbrella. Her parents clearly used “collapsing” while packing up at the beach and Naya retained the word. I wondered if Naya helped to collapse the umbrella, if Tonia explained what collapsing meant, how many times Naya had to hear the word before she could make this connection, and if Tonia used the word in other situations.
Unsurprisingly, Naya didn’t want to help collapse the boxes because she was so busy. On the way to preschool each morning, Tonia and Naya talk about their upcoming day. Naya chats about playmates she can’t wait to see and activities she wants to do. Tonia fills in Naya on her plans and appointments. It makes sense if Naya gets swamped with taking her baby doll to the doctor, grocery shopping or making playdough creations, so Tonia needs to make an appointment if she wants Naya’s help collapsing boxes.
How can parents help enrich their child’s vocabulary?
Tonia’s style with her young daughter provides an excellent example of ways we might encourage our clients’ parents to help build their child’s vocabulary. Parents can teach children new words every day by reading to them, engaging in conversation, explaining daily routines, and taking family excursions to museums. Tonia enjoys making up her own stories and incorporating new vocabulary for reinforcement. Experiences such as travel and sailing also enrich Naya’s vocabulary. Tonia automatically combines synonyms and definitions when using a new word, but lately Naya inquires what words mean on her own.
When Tonia and her daughter speak, they never use vague words. They precisely label items and explain themselves clearly. One of Tonia’s many mantras: Why should I say “hungry” when I can expose Naya to “ravenous?” Why say “hot” when I can say “scorching?”
When Naya was younger, Tonia allowed her to speak for herself. When Naya speaks, Tonia actively shows she’s listening. When Naya needs more time to think about what she wants to say, Tonia remains silent and waits patiently for her daughter to pull her thoughts together. Tonia occasionally coaxes Naya into using more mature vocabulary as the conversation progresses.
Vocabulary skills help children with decoding words when they learn to read, as well as with general reading comprehension and school performance. A child with a larger vocabulary becomes more aware of sound patterns within words. For example, when reading the unfamiliar word “favorite,” a child might decode the ending to sound like “kite.” However, if she already knows the word “favorite,” she’ll likely read it correctly.
Encourage parents to read with their child, explain unfamiliar words and point out word meanings within the pictures. Teach them how to purposely use target vocabulary words repeatedly in conversations and suggest they combine the word with synonyms and definitions as necessary. Explain that they should use target vocabulary words in relation to their child’s experiences. If parents make an effort to improve their 3-year-old’s vocabulary, they may end up having a conversation like this:
Naya: I’m a rock star.
Tonia: Oh, yeah? What do rock stars do?
Naya: Make music. And I have a hat. (Puts hat in front of her on the floor.)
Tonia: What is that for?
Naya: So you can give me money.
Tonia: Do you want me to buy your hat?
Naya: No. I want you to put money in my hat.
Naya: Because I did a good job and you liked my music.
Tonia: What if I don’t have change?
Naya: That’s okay Mommy, you can give me something valuable.
Tonia: What do you mean?
Naya: Something valuable, like jewelry.
Tonia: Why do you think jewelry is valuable?
Naya: Because it glitters, like ornaments. (Pause) And maybe it’s fragile, too.
Tonia: What else is fragile?
Naya: People’s hearts.
Stephanie Sigal, MA, CCC-SLP, is a speech-language pathologist practicing in Manhattan, New York. She provides home-based treatment for children with language delay as well as articulation and oral motor/oral placement disorders. firstname.lastname@example.org