According the authors of “The Interprofessional Healthcare Team: Leadership and Development,” interprofessionalism refers to the active participation of different professionals, which may include persons with professional licensure or certification in nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech-language pathology, social work, and other health-related professions who are collaborating to provide quality services to the patients they serve. Through a steadfast commitment to collaboration, interprofessional practice among healthcare professionals seeks to enhance the quality of health and medical services, which lead to improved patient outcomes. Developing synergy between through shared knowledge and decision-making promotes positive change in work settings and builds meaningful relationships with patients and their families. But, say the authors, shaping efficacious teams depends upon fundamental knowledge of the represented field, the use of evidence-based practice, interprofessional leadership, and members who are prepared to collaborate effectively in a team, which we believe can be accomplished through interprofessional education (IPE).
The Institute of Medicine Committee on Health Professions Education provides recommendations for developing a strong team: “health professionals should be educated to deliver patient-centered care as members of an interdisciplinary team, emphasizing evidence-based practice, quality improvement approaches, and informatics.” Because of ongoing changes to the U.S. healthcare system, including insurance policy initiatives, technological advances, and innovative service delivery models, it is imperative for all professionals, including speech-language pathologists and audiologists, to embrace a new spirit of interprofessional collaboration and cooperation. Leading health organizations, such as the Pew Health Professions Commission, the Institutes of Medicine, and the World Health Organization, support the concept that health professionals have received adequate education to work in healthcare settings only if it includes experience participating in interdisciplinary teams to collaboratively solve complex problems.
Due to changes in service delivery models that have resulted in an increase of members within healthcare teams, interprofessional practice is rapidly becoming an expectation in most healthcare settings. Universities and training programs in speech-language pathology and audiology are only recently beginning to embrace models of IPE. In some universities, students from several disciplines are enrolled in the same courses, teamed for practicum experiences, participate in field-based experiences, and ultimately learn to work as effective, interprofessional teams. A unique way for IPE to be learned has recently occurred though simulation-based education in the College of Health Professions at The University of Akron.
Simulation-based education is an innovative process for creating authentic situations in which groups of IPE students learn to collaborate. Specifically, this technique can assist in overcoming some of the challenges that exist in healthcare: inadequate communication among professionals, focusing on specific needs rather than the whole patient, lack of knowledge of other professionals’ roles, the inability to work as an effective team member, and a lack of conflict-resolution skills. IPE conducted as a simulation activity may supplement traditional classroom strategies to enhance the performance of healthcare providers, ultimately resulting in reduction of errors in the workplace and an increase in the quality of care provided to patients. Although this strategy has been recognized by various international professional societies, including the World Health Organization and Institute of Medicine, as foundational to achieving safe, high-quality, accessible patient-centered care, not many healthcare training programs are on board.
Fortunately, as graduate students in speech-language pathology at The University of Akron, we were given the opportunity to participate in an IPE simulation activity. It included more than 90 students studying in the fields of nursing, nutrition/dietetics, social work, medicine, and pharmacy. Groups of five or six students from each discipline worked together to treat a specific, simulated patient. This particular simulation portrayed a young female combat veteran primarily diagnosed with a traumatic brain injury, with secondary diagnoses of depression, binge eating, insomnia, post-traumatic stress-syndrome, and cognitive deficits. Working as a team, our goal was to assess, diagnose and create a treatment plan for this patient to help alleviate her daily struggles, such as her inability to maintain a healthy diet, pay attention during class, and communicate effectively with loved ones. To develop an effective treatment plan, these challenges needed the knowledge and skills of each of the disciplines that participated in the simulation activity.
As the simulation began, we quickly recognized the need for strong interpersonal skills. It was a challenge figuring out when to speak, when to listen, and how to deliver opinions appropriately. Common observations of group dynamics included students promptly stating their opinions on how the patient should be treated before discussing a rationale or their role; students aggressively prioritizing needs of the patient without consultation; and many students reported they were unaware or had misconceived ideas about the roles of other professionals, especially speech-language pathologists. From these experiences, the need for this type of training was even more apparent. We learned that professional roles, especially speech-language pathologists, may be unclear to others, and we found ourselves advocating for our field and its importance in making treatment decisions. We also found that many students were very knowledgeable about their discipline but lacked good communication skills. This challenge resulted in a struggle to connect constructively with other students in other courses of study. We now recognize how vital interpersonal skills are to delivering optimum patient-centered care.
From this exercise we now believe an IPE approach to teaching and training can have a tremendous impact on the preparation of speech-language pathologists and audiologists. With this training, students will enter the workforce with experience collaborating with other professionals and will understand the power of teamwork to accomplish a task. When students practice interprofessionalism and see the power in collaborating with other professionals, greater progress can be achieved in the workplace. Participating in the IPE simulation has boosted our confidence by showing us how to apply our clinical knowledge and skills in a safe but functional learning environment, but most importantly, it has given us a sense of how to work as a team to improve the life of our patient, which is the essence of patient-centered care. We have definitely taken our first critical steps toward becoming truly interprofessional!
Crystal Sirl, BA, is a graduate student in the School of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology at The University of Akron.
Grace Bosze, BA, is a graduate student in the School of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology at The University of Akron.