How to Use The Language of Baking

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Do you want to spice up your therapy sessions? Try this no fail recipe for pumpkin brownies. They are moist, full of chocolate flavor and absolutely delicious. You will not miss the additional oil or eggs in this recipe. There are only two ingredients, which make it easy to make and fit into a therapy session.  Whenever I bake during a therapy session, I try to focus on very simple recipes so that more time could be spent on speech and language goals. When you try to create a recipe that is too complicated, you can get lost in the activity and lose sight of your speech and language goals.

From my perspective, language and baking naturally occur together. Children really enjoy baking because it can be a stimulating sensory activity as well as language rich activity. When baking in a group, pragmatic language goals can be easily targeted (topic maintenance, turn taking, appropriate topics, etc).

The ingredients in this recipe do not need to be refrigerated and are easily found at any supermarket. They are also very affordable and yield about a dozen brownies! With no added fat, they are much healthier than the normal brownie. Also, the brownies do not contain any additional eggs or oil.

Ingredients:

1 can of pureed pumpkin (15 oz can of pureed pumpkin, not pie filling)

1 box of brownie mix (I used chocolate fudge brownies, 19.5 box)

Sprinkles or topping of your choice

Directions:

  1. Preheat oven to 375 degrees.
  2. Wash hands.
  3. Grease 8 X 8 inch square pan.
  4. Open brownie box and pumpkin can.
  5. Combine pumpkin and brownie mix in a bowl.
  6. Stir until smooth.
  7. Pour batter into greased pan.
  8. Sprinkle batter with topping of your choice (I used 3-4 tablespoons of sprinkles).
  9. Bake at 350 degrees for about 30-35 minutes or until done (till toothpick comes out clean).

10. Cut and let cool.

11. Eat and enjoy!

pumpkin brownies

Ten  speech and language goals that can targeted during baking time:

 

  1. Sequencing. Work on “first, then” and have the child retell the steps to the recipe in the correct order.
  2. Following Directions. Work on one- to two-step directions (e.g. “open the box and pour in the brownie mix”).
  3. Asking For Help: Create situations that a child needs to ask for help such as opening the box of brownies or opening the can of pumpkin.
  4. Expanding vocabulary. You can expand the child’s vocabulary by focusing on new vocabulary such as cooking utensils, ingredients, appliances, etc.
  5. Turn taking. This recipe is excellent to do in a group. Each child can take a turn pouring the ingredients into the bowl, stirring the mixture together and pouring it into the pan. Use a turn card when baking so that each child knows when it’s their turn.
  6. Describing. Have your client describe the ingredients focusing on what they look, smell and feel like. Have the child taste the pumpkin and describe the flavors. Discuss the colors of the ingredients and toppings (if you are using). Does the pumpkin look smooth? What does the brownie mix feel like? What does it smell like?
  7. Actions: Focus on actions such as, “wash,” “open,” “pour,” “combine,” “stir,” “bake,” “cut,” “sprinkle,” “eat,” etc.
  8. Choice making: Baking time is an excellent opportunity to improve choice making such as choosing what step they would like to do, what topping they want, etc. Although the recipe seems very simple, there are a lot of opportunities for making choices.
  9. Recalling information/narratives: Ask the child questions such as “What did we do first?” etc. Ask the child to tell you a story about “making pumpkin brownies.” When you are baking, take some photos with your phone or camera (if you have written permission) and use the photos to recall information and create a narrative. There are many wonderful apps out there that are ideal for creating stories with photographs. Don’t have an electronic device? Have the child draw a story about the pumpkin brownie activity.
  10. Pragmatic language goals: When baking together, pragmatic goals can be worked on. Discuss appropriate and inappropriate language and behavior when baking. If you are baking in a small group, help facilitate conversation between peers and encourage maintaining appropriate topics of discussion.

If your client is nonverbal or minimally verbal, create a communication board so they can communicate during the activity.

Carryover Books: Try reading some of these books after making the brownies together. These books can help carryover the concept of pumpkins and baking.

How Many Seeds in a Pumpkin? By Margaret McNamara

Seed, Sprout, Pumpkin Pie by Jill Esbaum

Betty Bunny Loves Chocolate Cake by Michael Kaplan

It’s Pumpkin Day, Mouse! By Laura Numeroff and Felicia Bond

Carryover Activities: Bring in a small pumpkin and decorate it during a therapy session. Each child can take home a small pumpkin that they decorated themselves.

Becca Eisenberg, MS, CCC-SLP, is a speech-language pathologist, author, instructor, and parent of two young children, who began her website www.gravitybread.com to create a resource for parents to help make mealtime an enriched learning experience . She discusses the benefits of reading to young children during mealtime, shares recipes with language tips and carryover activities, reviews children’s books for typical children and those with special needs as well as educational apps. She has worked for many years with both children and adults with developmental disabilities in a variety of settings including schools, day habilitation programs, home care and clinics. She can be reached at becca@gravitybread.com, or you can follow her on Facebook; on Twitter; or on Pinterest.

 

When Is Treatment for Stuttering ‘Completed’?

asianboy_89387926Both parents and speech therapists alike find themselves struggling to decide when treatment is complete for someone who stutters. Therapy for a child who has difficulty saying their “r”s has a distinct beginning and end (when a child meets criterion for 90 percent accuracy in conversation), however, stuttering is much more variable, by nature. In fact, once a child reaches the age of 8, it is much more likely that their stuttering is going to persist, in some form.

Does this mean that treatment will continue forever? The idea of treatment continuing indefinitely is daunting to both the therapist who has to continue to think of new and exciting activities and the parent who has to both make room in their schedule and in their budget!

Preschool age children
Many children go through a period of “temporary” disfluency as they begin to place more demands on their language system. Preschool children often have not developed the negative reactions to disfluencies that play a role in persistent stuttering that we see in older children and adults. As a result, for a child this age, it makes sense for a therapist (and parent) to aim to eliminate stuttering. I believe that a period of stutter-free speech is necessary to warrant dismissal from therapy for a young child (minimal “typical” disfluencies such as phrase repetitions or sentence revisions may persist).

Following a month or more of stutter-free speech, therapy should be slowly faded, going from weekly visits to monthly visits and finally entering into a monitoring period. This is a period where parents should keep in touch with their therapist to discuss how their child is doing at home and school. It is important to educate parents that stuttering is highly variable and that if a child does not stutter for weeks or even months, the parents should still continue to follow the program the therapist has set up for them and monitor changes in fluency so that they can quickly address a “reoccurrence,” should it occur.

School-age children/adolescents
As a child enters school and begins to demonstrate a more complex stuttering pattern, total elimination of stuttering may not be a realistic goal. Instead, it is more reasonable for a child this age to have a goal of improving their communication skills to include more forward-moving speech, although maybe not completely stutter-free. In addition a goal should be put in place to reduce the negative impact of stuttering on the child’s academic and social life. With these types of goals, it is much harder for a parent or therapist to assess when a child meets criterion for discharge from therapy.

A child should not be discharged unless a therapist determines that stuttering is no longer having a negative impact on how the child is participating in activities, interacting with others and communicating messages. Benchmarks for success cannot be solely based on frequency of stuttering, as a child who stutters on 50 percent of their syllables may be less impacted by their speech than a child who only stutters on 10 percent of syllables. The amount of impact is largely dependent on the severity of disfluencies (for example, blocks versus whole word repetitions), length of disfluencies (for example, fleeting versus 5 seconds), degree of secondary behaviors (for example, eye blinks, tension in lips, loss of eye contact), and child’s temperament.

Even a child who is not demonstrating any obvious disfluencies may be in great need of intervention. It takes a carefully observant therapist and parent to detect if the child that is seemingly fluent is actually masking disfluencies by avoiding words or situations. I suggest that therapy for school-age children who stutter be ongoing and, at the very least, be on a consult basis.

A child may comfortably get through fifth grade, with stuttering having relatively little impact on them, however, that same child may begin sixth grade, in a new school, and suddenly stuttering may play a very different role in their daily life. Having a speech therapist monitoring your child will allow for you to quickly catch any changes that may warrant more direct and intensive therapy.

Adults
With maturity, adults can decide for themselves if they are going through a period when speech has become a priority (for example, when interviewing for a job, gaining a new responsibility at work that involves speaking, dating, relocating, and so forth).

Brooke Leiman, MA, CCC-SLP, is the fluency clinic supervisor at National Speech Language Therapy Center in Bethesda, Md. Brooke hosts a blog focused on stuttering and stuttering therapy at www.stutteringsource.com. She can be contacted at Brooke@nationalspeech.com.

Harnessing Learning Styles

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How many times have you heard someone say, “I’m a visual learner” or “I need to do it to understand it.” These are styles of learning. Depending on what research you find, there are 20, 16, 7, etc… types of learning. Among those styles of learning, I have seen a trend of seven to be the most common: visual, aural, verbal, physical, solitary, social, and logical. While some people can strictly use one style of learning, most are a combination. So let us take a closer look at these learning styles and how we can incorporate them into our speech sessions.
1) Visual (Spatial). People who are visual learners learn best when pictures, images, and spatial understandings are used. A lot of our students tend to be visual learners. They benefit from color coding, picture schedules, and graphic organizers to help understand material and process information. Students who are visual learners may benefit from using a story with pictures when addressing listening comprehension or photos of actions being done when working on verb tenses.
2) Aural (Auditory). Those who are aural learners do best when sound (speaking), music, or rhythms are used. These students may remember something best when it is put to a familiar tune or rhythmic pattern. Tapping or clapping out concept/word meanings can be used to help them improve storage and retrieval of information.
3) Verbal (Linguistic). People who are verbal learners prefer to talk out their questions and thoughts to understand. These are the students who may take the ‘long way’ to answer a question because they are ‘talking’ out their thought process. Give them time and listen closely as they explain. Does their explanation make sense? Is there a logical sequence to their thought process? If you are having trouble determining if they are truly understanding, have them write down ( in quick points ) or draw their thought process out as they explain it.
4) Physical (Kinesthetic). Those who are physical learners, learn best by doing and feeling, rather than seeing and hearing. These students can benefit from crafts and activities that relate to their speech and language goals. These students may benefit from performing actions when working on verb tenses or basic concepts/following directions.
5) Logical (Mathematical). People who are logical learners do best when material is presented in a direct, no fuss manner. They pick up on patterns quickly which makes them stronger with numbers (math). When presenting speech and language concepts to logical learners, try and pair the concept with a real-life, relatable example and keep everything as straight forward as possible. If you are targeting pragmatics, emphasizing expected lunch room conversation and behavior, you may choose to have your session in the lunch (if possible) and create the situation you are attempting to address. Be sure to give clear direction and explanation, for example: “Your friend has your favorite cookies in their lunch and you want some. It is rude to take without asking, so if you want some you need to ask politely. Can you show me how to do that?”
6) Solitary (Intrapersonal). Solitary learners prefer to study alone and teach themselves when possible. These students may say they understand a concept when they don’t in order to allow themselves time to look at and process the information in their own way. When introducing a new speech and language concept or area, give these students time to examine the information themselves. This may be difficult due to the length of sessions, but try to provide them some time, at least 5 minutes. Once they have had time with the material invite them to explain it to you. This will allow you establish their understanding.
7) Social (Interpersonal). Those who are social learners prefer to learn within groups and do best when they can bounce ideas of someone. They do well communicating verbally and non-verbally with others. Students who are social learners may enjoy ‘teaching’ a fellow student a concept they are working on. This will require them to focus and understand their own goal to ‘teach’ the other student.
How to Determine Learning Styles
Now that you have some background about some different learning styles, how do you figure out which of these profiles fit your students? Depending on their age there are a few options.
Early Intervention: Just because your clients are young doesn’t mean they don’t lean toward a particular learning style or two. Parent questionnaires and your observations can help to compile information about how to set up your sessions to be engaging and productive while presenting material that fits their learning style. Babyzone has an online quiz for parents to help gather information about what style of learning their little one may prefer.
Elementary: For elementary students, trial and error and parent questionnaires may be used to gather information. Since elementary students are younger and still learning about themselves, getting insight from parents will probably be the most reliable source of information. Once collected, it will allow you to test out some methods in your sessions to find what works best and what doesn’t. Scholastic has an online questionnaire for parents to fill out about their child’s learning style, just make sure the age parameter is set correctly for the child.
Junior High: These students are a bit more mature than elementary, and have had the time and experiences to hopefully learn a bit more about themselves. You may be able to have students fill out basic learning profile questionnaires or quizzes with you. Piedmont Education Services and Edutopia both have short questionnaires that students can fill out with you. Then you can discuss what the results indicated and if the student’s agree. They may even be able to give you suggestions about what they think may help them.
High School: Oh high school students. If you work within this setting I am sure you have been informed how they already know how they can and cannot learn what works for them and what doesn’t. Allow them to humor you and take another look at their learning style. Accelerated Learning has a 35 question quiz to see what learning style characteristics your high school students demonstrate. Who knows, they may learn something new about themselves. I would also suggest including them in discussions about how to target their learning styles.

Maureen Wilson, M.S., CCC-SLP. is a school based speech-language pathologist from Illinois. She also holds a certificate in Inclusionary Teaching. Her blog, The Speech Bubble offers ideas and resources for speech therapists.  You can follow her on Facebook, Instagram, and Pinterest.

How to Put the ‘Super’ in Supervisor

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Being a supervisor in any setting brings to mind a myriad of responsibilities. Is it best to guide or direct, monitor or inspect, influence or manage? As a supervisor to well over 120 speech-language pathologists in school settings during the past 15 years, I have learned a lot about duties and people.

Each situation or SLP calls for different handling at different times, but staying true to one’s own supervisory style is most important, I feel. Consistency helps everyone stay connected and working toward mutual goals.

Over the years I have developed a list of seven skills that have, time and again, helped me stay on track and support staff, even when I really had no idea how to handle a particular situation! If the following list can help even one person, I offer it with humility, as I am still learning and growing:

  1. Listen! Actively listen to staff (and parents!). Do not interrupt or begin to form a response until the person is done speaking. Sometimes people only need to be heard.
  2. Be available. Let staff know how, when, where to find you helps alleviate concerns.
  3. Take responsibility for your actions and for those on your staff. Do what you say you will do.
  4. Give credit where credit is due. Usually the best ideas have come from the staff.
  5. Lead, follow or get out of the way. Okay, I stole this one from Thomas Paine, but it is true. Often it is necessary to lead, but recognize and follow a good idea when it is offered. At times, you have to let a staff member figure out a solution for him or herself (this I learned from a seasoned supervisor).
  6. Stay informed. Stay current with knowledge and skills for your area of the field; it is fine to learn from other staff or supervisors.
  7. ACT. Be accountable, credible, trustworthy

Your list may be very different from mine, and I would be happy to compare notes. Supervision has been, by far, my most challenging and interesting job during my 30+ year career in speech-language pathology. And I am honored to be able to work with a dedicated and professional group of individuals! Each one has taught me valuable lessons about coaching, guiding, monitoring and supervising. The staff is truly the most valuable asset, and, as such, honing one’s supervisory skills is critical to your and their success. Good luck!

Janice Tucker, SLP.D, CCC-SLP, is a supervisor of speech-language support programs in Pennsylvania. She is past president of the Pennsylvania Association of Speech Supervisors and past vice president of the Pennsylvania Speech-Language-Hearing Association. She is an affiliate of ASHA Special Interest Groups 16, School-Based Issues, and 18, Telepractice.

Collaboration Corner: The Technology You Need to Get It Done

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Like most school years, I’m always amazed at how chaotic re-entry can be. As a traveling therapist (locally, and now globally) a few everyday tech tools are an integral part of connecting with my colleagues and consulting with other educators. As practitioners, we are stretched in a thousand different directions. Here are some quick ideas to use with these virtual life-savers. Best of all, they are free:

Googledocs: Get online and create group documents without several versions sent around in different attachments. It’s a totally collaborative platform. In my workplace, we have used it to:

  • Make group SMART goals even smarter; create group professional development goals all in the same place.
  • Make Power Point presentations for that next staff meeting virtually.
  • Create spreadsheets to share caseload information, class lists, inventories of tests and supplies.
  • Collaborate on evaluations and writing reports.
  • Have a place to access reports and notes from any laptop or computer.
  • Create meeting minutes for everyone on the team to access.

 

Doodle: Have a team meeting to set up? This little online tool allows you to email several time slots to one group of people all at once, and poll the best date.

 

Microsoft Word - Collaboration Cornersept[4].docx

 

Skype: Nothing like a little face time, right? Using Skype is free, but conference/group chats are available for a small monthly free. If you have a camera and a working mic on your laptop, or i-device you are good to go. I can consult with South America while looking at the notes I’ve pulled up from my google docs. I like Skype because it is super user-friendly for those who are a little tech-shy. This year I’m even using Skype to consult with supervising a SLPA in training. Through Skype I can chat with his supervisor who is out of state.

Dropbox: Similar to Google docs this has the additional ability to drop in video, notes, or whatever information you want to share all in one folder. You simply download the app to your desktop or portable device. If you put it on your iPad, then you can take videos on the go, and put them directly into the shared folder. This is great forum to video your sessions with your students, and share them with parents and teachers.

Happy techno-collaborating!

 

Kerry Davis, PhD, CCC-SLP, is a city-wide speech-language pathologist in the Boston area. Her areas of interest include working with children with multiple disabilities, inclusion in education and professional development. The views on this blog are my own and do not represent those of my employer. Dr. Davis can be followed on Twitter at @DrKDavisslp.